Category Archives: Medicare

Alzheimer’s Treatment: Non-Drug Therapies That Can Help

Written by Evan Farr

There are treatments available now that most families coping with Alzheimer’s or other dementia never hear about that can significantly improve their quality of life.

Called non-pharmacologic therapies (NPTs), these treatments do not come in a pill. Instead, NPTs such as personal counseling and occupational therapy-based strategies are proven to improve the quality of life for people with dementia and their families. NPTs support families and teach them the skills they need to protect their own health and cope with the intense demands of caregiving and help people with dementia stay independent and safe for as long as possible. Some of the NPTs currently used are proven programs that are actually more effective than any known drugs for Alzheimer’s disease.

One example of an NPT, developed at NYU, includes individual and family counseling to reduce conflict and improve communication among family members. Those caring for a spouse with dementia who received the NYU Caregiver Intervention were more satisfied with social support and less depressed, less bothered by difficult behaviors, had better physical health and were able to keep their ill spouses at home longer than those receiving usual care.

Another model developed at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, employs occupational therapists to assess the patient with dementia and identify preserved capabilities as well as the caregiver’s needs. Families are then provided with strategies to manage day to day care, such as communication techniques, safe-proofing the home, establishing daily routines and engaging the individual with dementia in meaningful activities. Families who participated have reported feeling more confident and less upset, and found that their ill family member functions better and exhibits fewer challenging behaviors.

Another NPT that is now being used is a stimulator device surgically implanted into the brain of a patient in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. The implanted device is seen as a possible means of boosting memory and reversing cognitive decline, and has already been used in thousands of people with Parkinson’s. The surgery involves drilling holes into the skull to implant wires into the fornix on either side of the brain.  The wires are attached to a pacemaker-like device, which stimulates the brain with tiny electrical impulses generated 130 times a second. The patients don’t feel the current.

Lastly, another effective non-drug Alzheimer’s treatment used to jog memory is music. In nursing homes that use music, the personalized playlists are often meaningful songs chosen by loved ones.  According to Alzheimer’s experts, music helps patients become more alert, more cooperative, more attentive, and more engaged. In many cases, even if they can’t recognize loved ones and they’ve stopped speaking, when the patients hear music, they “come alive”.

Geri Hall, a clinical nurse specialist at the Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, explains how music activates a part of the brain that stays active despite the dementia. “There is something about music that gets through to Alzheimer’s patients right up until the very end of the disease,” she said, adding that “familiar music from the past can help people with dementia feel at home. It calms them, increases socialization, and even decreases the need for mood controlling medications.” Read our blog post about Alzheimer’s and Music.

Alzheimer’s slowly robs its victims of a lifetime of memories and the ability to perform simple daily tasks.  Instead of focusing on drug treatments, many of which have failed in clinical trials, it may be a good idea to try non-drug treatment options. These programs have been proven effective in randomized controlled trials. And, unlike drug therapy, there are no adverse side effects. There is also an economic argument to be made for better caregiver support. Nearly 11 million family and other unpaid caregivers provided an estimated 12.5 billion hours of care to people with dementia. This care is valued at nearly $144 billion. The country can’t afford the consequences of these caregivers becoming too burned out or sick to carry on. See our recent blog post about the rising cost of dementia.

Moving a person with dementia to a nursing home, while sometimes unavoidable, is expensive. The NPTs described have helped to delay nursing home placement for more than a year. Unfortunately, you cannot delay the inevitable forever, but what you can do is plan ahead for you and your loved ones. Do you or a loved one need nursing home care in the near future or are you looking to plan ahead? Call 703-691-1888 to make an appointment for a no-cost consultation at The Fairfax Elder Law Firm of Evan H. Farr, P.C.  We can meet with you, access your situation and determine strategies for your long-term care plan.

Health Care Reform Act: Good News for Seniors

Written by Evan Farr
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) has released a report that demonstrates the benefits senior citizens are expected to receive as a result of new health care reform. The average senior citizen enrolled in “traditional Medicare” will save roughly $3,500 over the next decade, according to Senior Journal. The mechanism for these savings will be The Affordable Care Act (the Act).
In addition, seniors who rely on expensive medication may save up to $12,300. This information was propagated originally by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Secretary Kathleen Sebelius noted the positive influence on “some of our most vulnerable citizens,” by stating that the Act will strengthen Medicare. This will be achieved in part, by reducing the expansion of cost-sharing in Medicare.
Where will the cost savings come from? The largest portion of the savings is expected to derive from the closing of the Part D coverage gap. Read more about the Part D coverage gap (also referred to as “the donut hole”) here.

Timeline Provides Understanding, Guidance to Complicated Health Care Laws

Written by Evan Farr

For those interested in understanding health care reform (in particular, the Affordable Health Care Act), government website provides a timeline that is user-friendly and informative. Below, I will highlight some of the more interesting goals and aspirations of the Act.
Discounts and Services Starting January 1, 2011:
50% discounts available for seniors who reach the coverage gap. Savings will be available for those purchasing Medicare Part D brand-name drugs. The gap is expected to close by 2020, and during the interim, seniors will be given additional savings.
Preventative services will be provided to Medicare recipients for free. For instance, annual wellness visits.
Administrative Funding to Become Available October, 2011:
The Medicare Trust Fund will be assessed by The Independent Payment Advisory Board with an aim to extend its life. Plans are expected to be submitted to Congress and the Executive Office.
New “Community First Choice Option” will allow States to provide home and community services through Medicaid (as opposed to traditional nursing home care).
Doctors to Help Each Other to Exchange Information; January, 2012
New laws provide incentives for physicians to assimilate and form “Accountable Care Organizations.” Doctors would be able to exchange information more easily, and costs would be cut by eliminating unnecessary tests.
Going Green and Online: October, 2012
Changes are expected to reduce paper records. By standardizing billing and using electronic storage systems, not only will care be more efficient but also less costly.
Increased Medicaid Payments for Primary Care Doctors: January, 2013
The Act will require states to pay primary care physicians 100% of Medicare payment rates in 2013 and 2014 for primary care services.

Important Medicare Change: Patients No Longer Need to Show Progress to Receive Nursing Coverage

Written by Evan Farr

Medicare coverage of short-term rehabilitation in a nursing home is about to undergo a major policy change, resulting in beneficiaries with chronic conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, arthritis, heart disease, and stroke no longer need to show ongoing improvement to maintain Medicare coverage.

For decades, when short-term rehabilitation patients in nursing homes failed to show improvement but still needed skilled nursing in the form of custodial care or therapy, Medicare would routinely terminate their Medicare coverage, forcing these patients prematurely into private pay or, if they could financially qualify, Medicaid.  This need for ongoing “improvement” was a pervasive, though unwritten ”rule of thumb” followed by Medicare and by Medicare contractors when doing Medicare evaluations in nursing homes.  However, nothing in the Medicare statute or its regulations has ever stated that “improvement” is required for continued skilled care. 

A class action lawsuit, Jimmo v. Sebelius, was filed against the Obama administration in January 2011 in federal court. This case and a similar case in Pennsylvania aimed at ending the government’s use of the “improvement standard” were both settled by the Government.  This settlement should result in Medicare no longer focusing on “the presence or absence of an individual’s potential for improvement.”  Rather, Medicare must continue to provide short-term care whether or not the patient is improving, provided the patient needs skilled care.

It must be understood that Medicare coverage for nursing home care is still a very limited type of short-term benefit, as it only covers a maximum of 100 days per benefit period, and only if the patient requires skilled nursing care. However, under the new settlement, Medicare coverage should no longer be terminated just because the patient’s medical condition is no longer improving. On the contrary, coverage should remain available for services that are needed to maintain the person’s condition or to prevent further deterioration.

In summary, Medicare coverage in the past has often been erroneously denied for individuals with chronic conditions, for people who are not improving, or who are in need of services to maintain their condition. With this new government settlement, it should no longer be necessary for an individual’s underlying condition to be improving in order to continue to get Medicare coverage!   I emphasize the word should because the people who implement these policies may not conform to the new settlement as quickly as they should, so coverage appeals may be necessary in the short run until the local workers on the ground all get educated about this new shift in governmental policy. 

Luckily, the Medicare program has an appeal system to contest improper termination of coverage. Beneficiaries and their advocates should use this system to appeal Medicare determinations that unfairly deny or limit coverage.

For more information about this settlement, see:

To appeal what you believe is an improper Medicare termination in a nursing home, please download this self-help packet:  


To appeal what you believe is an improper Medicare termination of home health care, please download this self-help packet:  




Planning for Long-Term Care (Part 4)

Written by Evan Farr

The most important thing that you can do in planning for future contingencies is to act now. The future may hold limited resources or health problems for you and either one of these may prevent you from taking care of the things that you can easily achieve today.

In Part 1 of this series, I showed how making a good Long-Term Care Plan is an urgent and necessary step in preparing for the future. In Part 2, I outlined the three most essential documents found in that plan, namely, a General Power of Attorney, Advance Medical Directive with a Long-Term Care Directive and a Lifestyle Care Plan. In the last installment, Part 3, I discussed using long-term care insurance as part of a Long-Term Care Plan.  As we saw in Part 3, Virginia’s Long-Term Care Insurance Partnership Program offers government-endorsed “Medicaid Asset Protection” to consumers who buy long-term care insurance.
Part 4 will now discuss how our Living Trust PlusTM Asset Protection Trust can protect you from probate (as does a Revocable Living Trust) PLUS protect you from the expenses of long-term care.

You Can’t Afford to Ignore Long-Term Care Expenses

Whether you’re rich, poor, or somewhere in between, you cannot afford to ignore the potentially devastating costs of nursing home care and other types of long-term care. Nursing homes are the most likely and one of the most expensive creditors that most Americans are likely to face in their lifetimes. Remember the following statistics that I cited in Part 1 of this series:

  • About 70% of Americans who live to age 65 will need long-term care at some time in their lives, over 40 percent in a nursing home.
  • As of 2008, the national average cost of a private room in a nursing home was $212 per day or $77,380 per year.
  • The average person age 65 today will need some long-term care services for three years. Women need care for longer (on average 3.7 years) than do men (on average 2.2 years). Twenty percent of them will need care for more than five years.
  • Long-term care is not just needed by the elderly. A recent study found that 46 percent of group long-term care claimants were under the age of 65 at the time of disability.

Contrast the above long-term care statistics with statistics for automobile accident claims and homeowner’s insurance claims:

  • Between 2005 and 2007, an average of only 7.2% of people per year filed an automobile insurance claim.
  • Between 2002 and 2006, an average of only 6.15% of people per year filed a claim on their homeowner’s insurance.

Revocable Living Trusts Don’t Help

A revocable living trust is a wonderful tool to protect your assets from the expenses of probate, but it does not protect your assets from the expenses of long-term care while you’re alive. Because you have 100% unlimited access to the funds in a revocable living trust, so do your creditors, including nursing homes and State Medicaid programs.

Living Trust PlusTMProtect Assets from Probate PLUS Lawsuits PLUS The Expenses of Long-Term Care

In response to this limitation of revocable living trusts, I have developed a unique solution – a special type of irrevocable trust called the Living Trust PlusTM that functions very similarly to a revocable living trust but protects your assets from the expenses and difficulties of probate PLUS lawsuits PLUS the expenses of long-term care while you’re alive, in addition to a multitude of other financial risks during your lifetime. The Living Trust PlusTM protects your assets from lawsuits, auto accidents, creditor attacks, medical expenses, and — most importantly for the 99% of Americans who are not among the ultra-wealthy — from the catastrophic expenses often incurred in connection with nursing home care. For most Americans, the Living Trust PlusTM is the preferable form of asset protection trust because, for purposes of Medicaid eligibility, this type of trust is the only type of self-settled asset protection trust that allows a settlor to retain an interest in the trust while also protecting the assets from being counted by state Medicaid agencies.
Even though the Living Trust PlusTM is “irrevocable,” it can still be terminated so long as all interested parties (typically you and all of your beneficiaries) agree to terminate it. Additionally, you remain in control of your assets because:

  • you can be the trustee if desired;
  • you retain the right to receive all of the trust income;
  • you retain the right to live in and use your real estate;
  • you retain the right to change trustees; and
  • you retain the right to change beneficiaries.

The Living Trust PlusTM has no effect on your income or your income taxes.
If you’re a client or potential client who would like more information about the Living Trust PlusTM, please call us at 703-691-1888 to contact us for an appointment, visit the Living Trust PlusTM web site at or click here to register for one of our upcoming Living Trust PlusTM informational seminars.
If you’re an attorney interested in more information about the Living Trust PlusTM or interested in the possibility of licensing the Living Trust PlusTM Asset Protection System, visit the Living Trust PlusTM web site at and click on the link labeled “For Attorneys.”

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Planning for Long-Term Care (Part 1)

Written by Evan Farr

Are you one of the millions of Americans over age 50 who has not yet started planning for long-term care?

As financially responsible adults, most of us are prepared for some unexpected disasters – we pay for health and property damage insurance, and many of us have taken some steps toward funding for our retirement. But very few of us have prepared for one of the most devastating of unexpected events – the need for long-term care. According to most estimates, more than 60% of us will need long-term care at some point in our lives. If you are a member of the “sandwich generation” – responsible for an older parent – the odds that either you or your aging parent will need such care are even higher, and the costs to your lifestyle, finances, and security can be catastrophic. Consider the following long-term care statistics:

• About 70% of Americans who live to age 65 will need long-term care at some time in their lives, over 40 percent in a nursing home.
• As of 2011, the average cost of a nursing home in Northern Virginia was over $100,000 per year.
• A recent insurance company study found that 46 percent of its group long-term care claimants were under the age of 65 at the time of disability.

Contrast the above long-term care statistics with statistics for automobile accident claims and homeowner’s insurance claims:

• An average of only 7.2% of people per year file an automobile insurance claim.
• An average of only 6.15% of people per year file a claim on their homeowner’s insurance.

The need for long-term care drastically alters or completely eliminates the four principal retirement dreams of elderly Americans:

1. Remaining independent in the home without intervention from others
2. Maintaining good health and receiving adequate health care
3. Having enough money for everyday needs
4. Not outliving assets and income

Unfortunately, the reality is that the majority of Americans make no plans for long-term care. Not only does this lack of planning affect older Americans, but it also often has an adverse effect on the older person’s family, with sacrifices made in time, money, and family lifestyles. The stresses of being a caregiver for an older parent often result in a deterioration of the caregiver’s own physical and emotional health. Because of changing demographics and improved health care, the current generation — more than ever — needs to actively plan for long-term care.

So what are basics of a good Long-Term Care Plan? First and foremost are two critical documents that need to be prepared by an experienced and knowledgeable Elder Law Attorney. These two essential documents are:

• A Financial Durable Power of Attorney containing Asset Protection Powers; and
• An Advance Medical Directive containing a Long-Term Care Directive.

The third essential document, which you can prepare on your own, is a Lifestyle Care Plan.

Part 2 of this article will explain and explore these three critical documents to give you a greater understanding of the need for and importance of these vital long-term care planning instruments.

These essential legal documents, however, are only part of the requirements for a good Long-Term Care Plan. The other important component is a sound financial plan for how to pay for good long-term care. There are three primary ways to plan in advance for how to pay for long-term care: (1) build up your income and life savings in order to be able to self-fund your future care needs; (2) protect your assets by purchasing long-term care insurance; or (3) protect your assets by using an asset protection trust designed to legally protect your assets and allow you to qualify for Medicaid, the governmental program that pays for about 70% of people living in nursing homes. For some families, a fourth way to pay for long-term care is a type of Veteran’s pension benefit called “Aid & Attendance.”

Unfortunately, option 1 (building up your income and life savings to self-fund future care) is not feasible for most Americans, especially in these troubled economic times. Accordingly, Parts 3 through 5 of this series will explain and explore these three methods of paying for long-term care. Part 3 will focus primarily on using long-term care insurance to protect your assets; Part 4 will explore the use of a special type of asset protection trust to protect assets and gain early access to Medicaid; and Part 5 will explain the Veteran’s Aid & Attendance benefit.

There are many things that you can do now to begin to put together a good Long-Term Care Plan. The most important thing you can do is to act now! You may have limited resources in the future or health problems that will prevent you from taking care of the things you can easily take care of today. The Farr Law Firm specializes in long-term care planning and we would be happy to assist you in your preparations. Please visit us at or call 703-691-1888.

“Extra Help” Benefit for Seniors with High Prescription Expenses

Written by Evan Farr

It is no secret that medicine can become very costly as we age – especially as the prescriptions we are told to take by our doctors begin to increase in number.

When no generic version of a drug exists yet, the costs are even higher.  The good news is that the Social Security Administration (SSA) has a program called “Extra Help” for some Medicare beneficiaries.

Depending on and individual or couple’s assets and income level, he or she could qualify for extra help under Social Security.

 How much help?

“The Extra Help is estimated to be worth about $4,000 per year. To qualify for the Extra Help, a person must be receiving Medicare, have limited resources and income, and reside in one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia.” Read More at SSA.Gov.

What are the eligibility standards?

First, the “Extra Help” program is only available to people enrolled in a Medicare Prescription Drug plan.

Below are the additional requirements:

  • You have Medicare Part A and/or Part B;
  • If you are married and living with your spouse, your combined savings, investments, and real estate must not be worth more than $26,120;
  • If you are not currently married or not living with your spouse, then your savings, investments, and real estate must not be worth more than $13,070.

You do not have to count your home, vehicles, personal possessions, life insurance, burial plots, irrevocable burial contracts or back payments from Social Security or SSI.

If I think I am eligible, how do I apply?

You must apply online here, the “Extra Help with Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Costs” page, on the official website of the U.S. Social Security Administration.


Is Medicaid Too Complex for Americans?

Written by Evan Farr

Medicaid complexity is a real problem. For those not familiar with program specifics, Medicaid – not Medicare – is the program Americans rely on to receive their long-term care. Long-term care is extraordinarily expensive – in fact, it is the single most expensive creditor Americans are likely to face.  Unfortunately, understanding the various Medicaid rules is a monumental task for the average layperson, and to properly qualify for the program and protect one’s assets, it often it takes an experienced professional and a complicated asset protection plan.

Why is Medicaid so complex?  One reason may be due to the fact that Medicaid is a joint state and federal program, and planning to receive (either for you or for a client) this public benefit often involves tax planning, too.  Proper Medicaid planning requires an understanding of several complex bodies of law. 
While some of these quotes are humorous, it is no laughing matter that Americans, by and large, do not realize that Medicaid is available to the middle class.   Protecting assets from long-term care expenses can enable a family to pass an inheritance on to their children that otherwise would not have been available; it allows for the recipient to enjoy an enhanced qualify of life while alive; and it gives peace of mind and security to the family members.

Here is a glance at what the courts have had to say about Medicaid complexity over the last thirty-five years. 


The Second Circuit commented the absurdity of any law or regulation 7 subsections deep.  For example:

“As program after program has evolved, there has developed a degree of complexity . . . regulations which makes them almost unintelligible to the uninitiated . . . [a] draftsman who has gotten himself into a position requiring anything like [§139a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(VIII)(cc)] should make a fresh start.” Friedman v. Berger, 547 F.2d 724 (2nd Cir. 1976).


The United States Supreme Court has called the Medicaid laws:

“an aggravated assault on the English language, resistant to attempts to understand it.” Schweiker v. Gray Panthers, 453 U.S. 34, 43 (1981).


The Second Circuit calls the Medicaid statute one of:

“unparalleled complexity” in DeJesus v. Perales, 770 F.2d 316, 321 (2nd Cir. 1985).


In a case arising out of Maine, the District Court called Section 1396a(a)17) of the Medicaid statute:

“a virtually impenetrable thicket of legalese and gobbledygook.” Lamore v. Ives, 1991 WL 193601 (D.Me.)


The Fourth Circuit called the Medicaid Act:

“one of the most completely impenetrable texts within human experience” and
“dense reading of the most tortuous kind.” Rehab. Association of Virginia v. Kozlowski, 42 F.3d 1444, 1450 (4th Cir. 1994).

Medicaid complexity is a problem for all Americans.  Most Americans will need some form of long-term care, and of those that do, such care may be a nursing home stay.  The average private nursing home room costs nearly six-figures every year, and the average nursing home stay is close to three years.  Medicaid is available to anyone who can qualify; unfortunately, there are many public misperceptions when it comes to Medicaid.  Contrary to public belief, a person does not need to be “poor” to qualify.
At this point in time, the laws are so complex that it is recommended that any person contemplating long-term care speak with an experienced elder law attorney.

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5 Basic Reasons to Consider a Revocable Living Trust

Written by Evan Farr

 A revocable living trust can function as a Will, but it also offers other benefits that you should consider. If you pass away without a Will or Trust, the laws of your state will determine who receives your property, and in what amount. Moreover, your heirs will be required to wait a minimum of 1 year in Virginia. Not only can probate be time-consuming, it also can be very expensive. Proper estate planning can allow you to distribute your assets with peace of mind.
#1 – Avoid Expenses and Probate Tax: Probate is a court supervised proceeding that can be expensive and lengthy. How long? Anywhere from one to three years in most cases!
#2Enable Your Heirs to Receive Your Property More Quickly: Your loved ones can receive your assets much more quickly than if they are required to go through the probate process.
#3Ensure Your Trusted Family Members Oversee Your Estate Distribution, Not the Court: When you plan properly, you can select the persons responsible for overseeing the distribution of your estate. If you leave it up to the court system, there is no guarantee that what you expect to happen, will in fact take place.
#4 – Maintain Your Privacy: The distribution of your estate can be a highly personal matter. If you wish, you can maintain your privacy.
#5 – NO Annual Fee Required: Fees are only associated with amendments to the trust. Although there is no fee associated with maintaining a trust, our firm offers an optional Estate Plan Protection Program. We feel that such an option generates the most peace of mind for clients.
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Estate Planning Attorneys Warn About Matching Beneficiaries to Those Named in Your Will or Trust

Written by Evan Farr

As an estate planning attorney in Virginia, I have unfortunately seen many circumstances where a person goes through the time and expense of having an estate plan done, only to fail to update their beneficiaries on their financial or retirement accounts before they pass away.
An example of this would be Mary naming her brother Bill as the beneficiary of her life insurance policy in her trust, but at the time of her death, she had a different beneficiary named on the policy itself.
Just as life changes, so do your relationships, which can affect who you want to receive your assets –especially if you do not have children. Changing the beneficiary on assets such as bank accounts or life insurance policies is not uncommon, but you must remember to make sure that your will or trust reflects that change also.
Keeping your estate planning documents and beneficiaries up-to-date and coordinated is a quick and painless way to prevent legal headaches from occurring after you are gone.
Having two different named beneficiaries on two different documents can result in a lengthy and costly process to fix it – especially if each named person believes that they should be the one to inherit the asset.
The best way to avoid problems like this is to have a lawyer who focuses on wills and trusts handle every aspect of your estate.

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